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Argosy PSY 101 PSY/101 PSY101 QUIZ 1 Solutions

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  1. Treatments for mental illness, the ability of people to eliminate unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and initiate healthy behaviors such as exercise, and the development of positive parenting practices are all consistent with the idea that
  2. Brain imaging techniques have led to dramatic breakthroughs in the field of cognitive neuroscience.
  3. Which early American psychologist taught philosophy at Harvard, studied medicine, had strong interests in literature and religion, and wrote one of the most important psychology texts ever, The Principles of Psychology, in 1890?
  4. Psychologists who accept a biological explanation of behavior make certain assumptions. Which of the following would NOT be one of these assumptions?
  5. A friend who has been studying psychology a lot longer than you tells you that your habit of biting your nails is the result of an inner conflict between your personal need to stay a child and society’s demand that you grow up. You should recognize this advice as stemming from the ________ perspective.
  6. Which one of the following psychologists provide assessment and counseling for people with illnesses or disabilities?
  7. Psychologists who take the behaviorist approach seek to
  8. A researcher who is investigating the possibility that some mental illnesses have a genetic basis is most likely being guided by the ________ perspective.
  9. To investigate behavior, researchers may use different levels of analysis. Which of the following research questions exemplifies the narrowest, most specific level of analysis?
  10. Questions about how the mind works and the nature of free will can be traced back to
  11. Research designs often include a control condition
  12. In a study that examined male and female participation in “Doctors of the World,” the primary source of data was
  13. One of the most important functions of correlational methods is that their use allows researchers to
  14. When carrying out an experiment, the factor that the researcher manipulates is known as the ________ variable; the researcher measures the ________ variable.
  15. As an assignment for your Experimental Psychology class you have been asked to conduct a study that will yield a causal relationship between the independent and dependent variables. To complete this assignment, you must use the ________ method.
  16. Critical thinking skills are a good thing to read about, but they are not essential to the effective study and application of psychology.
  17. Imagine that you have agreed to participate in psychological research. Prior to the study, you will be given information about what you can expect and other details of the research, and asked to sign a form indicating your willingness to participate. This process is known as
  18. A researcher who is trying to develop a test of musical aptitude is overheard to say, “I want to make sure that the test that I am developing gives similar results time after time.” In the language of psychological measurement, this researcher is determined to develop a test that has high
  19. The main reason that psychological researchers use the experimental method is to
  20. The entire set of individuals to which generalizations will be made based on an experimental sample is called the population.
  21. Psychology is best defined as the scientific study of
  22. The central emphasis of the cognitive approach is on
  23. A classmate comes to you because he is concerned that his best friend is experiencing personal problems. You should suggest to your classmate that his friend may benefit by talking to a(n) ________ psychologist.
  24. One way in which the cognitive model of behavior differs from the behavioral model is in the assertion that, according to the cognitive model, behavior
  25. If you were to sample a group of researchers in psychology, they are most likely to say that the dominant approach in psychology today is the ________ perspective.
  26. Evolutionary psychology differs from other perspectives in its focus on the extremely long process of evolution as a central explanatory principle.
  27. With respect to attempts to answer questions about how the mind works, how did the classical Greek philosophers compare to the psychological researchers at the end of the nineteenth century?
  28. Which early American psychologist taught philosophy at Harvard, studied medicine, had strong interests in literature and religion, and wrote one of the most important psychology texts ever, The Principles of Psychology, in 1890?
  29. Imagine that you are a research psychologist. In your attempt to describe behavior, it is of utmost importance that you
  30. A researcher who is investigating the possibility that some mental illnesses have a genetic basis is most likely being guided by the ________ perspective.
  31. You would expect the correlation between height and weight to be
  32. A classmate informs you that, while conducting a naturalistic observation study of children’s play behavior, she had to ask the children to limit their play activity to only one area in the playground in order to make more accurate observations. Being familiar with observational methods, you should tell her that her study did not involve naturalistic observation because
  33. To save time, you assign the first fifty people who sign up to participate in your study to the experimental condition and the next fifty to the control condition. The interpretations you could draw from the study will be severely limited because
  34. A student who is a philosophy major is very interested in ethical issues. One day she asks you how psychologists deal with ethical issues when they are designing research studies. What should you tell her?
  35. An observer bias is
  36. You are about to take your first test in an introductory psychology class. Much to your surprise, the instructor hands you a test that contains ten analytical geometry problems. You would probably be able to argue that the test is not
  37. The results of a research study would be confounded if
  38. After collecting data, a researcher determines that states that have instituted a death penalty have shown a decrease in murders. Assuming that the data are accurate, what can you safely conclude?
  39. A clinical psychologist is working with the Federal Bureau of Investigation to develop an understanding of serial killers. She decides to focus her attention and measurements on a particularly brutal murderer who is serving a life sentence. Her approach is referred to as a
  40. In Robert Rosenthal’s study of the effects of expectations, some students were led to believe that the rats they were training were maze-bright and other students were told their rats were maze-dull, although the rats were actually all the same. What did Rosenthal find in the study?
  41. You’re reading an article about how recent research has shown that infants are much more sophisticated than was previously thought. Although several different types of psychologists may have written it, the author is most likely a ________ psychologist.
  42. Which one of the following psychologists provide assessment and counseling for people with illnesses or disabilities?
  43. A forensic psychologist is most likely to
  44. In 1879, in Leipzig, Germany,
  45. Historically speaking, the school of structuralism is older than the school of functionalism.
  46. The subject matter of psychology largely consists of
  47. Ever since she was a little girl, a teenager has been a troublemaker. A psychologist who favors the behaviorist perspective would most likely explain her behavior in terms of
  48. Simply stated, the idea behind natural selection is that organisms that are better suited to their environments tend to produce offspring more successfully than those organisms with poorer adaptations.
  49. In the view of psychologists who follow the cognitive perspective, behavior is completely determined by preceding environmental events and past behavioral consequences.
  50. Imagine reading a study that attributes abnormal behavior to malfunctioning brain centers and hormonal imbalances. This analysis would be most consistent with the approach taken by a psychologist who favors the biological perspective.
  51. To become a more sophisticated and critical thinker one should
  52. “If an athlete imagines having a good performance, then that athlete is more likely to be successful in an event.” This statement is a description of
  53. Research designs often include a control condition
  54. A seafood distributor hires a researcher to determine whether eating oysters makes one more passionate. The researcher collects data that show that the people who eat the most oysters have the most active love lives. What can be concluded from this research?
  55. You read in a health magazine that the more people drink and smoke, the greater the number of emotional problems they have. This relationship illustrates
  56. A researcher theorizes that people are likely to perspire more when telling embarrassing stories than when telling funny stories. Volunteers are asked to record a memory of an embarrassing or a funny incident and their perspiration is measured. On some days, but not others, the lab where the recordings are done is very hot. Based on this information, the researcher should be concerned most about
  57. Imagine that your instructor asks you to determine whether there is a relationship between musical ability and mathematical ability. The type of design best suited to this task would be a(n)
  58. Are researchers obligated to respect the basic rights of research participants? If so, how is this ensured?
  59. Which of the following is true of the within-subjects experimental design?
  60. In Robert Rosenthal’s study of the effects of expectations, some students were led to believe that the rats they were training were maze-bright and other students were told their rats were maze-dull, although the rats were actually all the same. What did Rosenthal find in the study?
  61. The first task in psychology is to make accurate observations about behavior. This means that psychologists must first ________ behavior.
  62. A researcher is designing a study that includes a procedure that may be upsetting or psychologically disturbing to his participants. What special actions do the guidelines for ethical standards of the American Psychological Association require him to follow?
  63. After you present your excuse for missing class, your instructor tells you that she has found that the more classes students miss, the lower their test grades tend to be. This relationship illustrates a(n)
  64. While rummaging in your grandfather’s attic, you come across what appears to be a previously undiscovered early manuscript of Sigmund Freud. Although you can’t read German, you guess that it most likely entitled something like
  65. A teacher is trying to see whether smiling at her students will increase the number of questions they ask. In the first and third week of the study, the number of questions students ask is recorded. In the second week, the teacher smiles a lot at her students, and the number of questions is also recorded. What type of research design is being used?
  66. Suppose you have signed up to participate in a psychological research study. Is there any chance that you will be deceived?
  67. A researcher computes a correlation
  68. Imagine that you have agreed to participate in psychological research. Prior to the study, you will be given information about what you can expect and other details of the research, and asked to sign a form indicating your willingness to participate. This process is known as
  69. In a between-subjects design, participants in the ________ condition are NOT exposed to the experimental treatment.