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Argosy PSY 101 PSY/101 PSY101 QUIZ 5 Solutions

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  1. Two children have different biological parents, but both were adopted in infancy by the same family. The idea that heredity determines personality would be supported if the personalities of the children are
  2. Imagine that you are playing the role of the ego in Freud’s theory of personality. Your major function would be to
  3. Personality theorist Hans Eysenck suggested three personality dimensions-introversion, extraversion, and neuroticism.
  4. In Freud’s approach, the major developmental task of the ________ stage is ________.
  5. A friend meets your cousin and thinks that he is cute. Later, she asks you what he is like. You tell her that he is warm, happy, optimistic, funny, and high achieving. According to Gordon Allport’s approach, you have described his ________ traits.
  6. Psychologists with a learning theory orientation look to the environmental circumstances that control behavior and see personality as the sum of responses that are elicited by an individual’s reinforcement history.
  7. Which of the following is most likely an example of self-handicapping behavior?
  8. In recent years, a consensus has emerged that ________ factors best characterize personality structure.
  9. To illustrate Freud’s structures of personality in a theatrical fashion, your psychology professor asks for volunteers to play the “roles” of the id, ego, and superego. When one student jumps up and starts shouting “Pick me, pick me!” the teacher knows he will be best suited to play the role of the
  10. A little boy has started to identify with and imitate everything that his father does and to act like him as much as he can. Within the context of Freud’s theory, we can infer that the boy
  11. A man describes himself as someone who “shoots himself in the foot” and inevitably hinders his own goal-seeking behavior, but he is concerned that he interferes with the goals of family members as well. This man’s behavior may be validly labeled abnormal according to the
  12. If you were a clinician working in the field of psychological disorders in the United States, one of your primary reference tools would be the
  13. To reduce the diagnostic difficulties caused by variability in approaches to psychological disorders, the DSM-IV-TR emphasizes the
  14. Phobias differ from fears in that phobias
  15. Hallucinations are false or irrational beliefs that are maintained despite clear evidence to the contrary.
  16. In Aaron Beck’s theory of depression, the “paralysis of will” that is prominent in depression is thought to be most directly the result of
  17. A man feels as though his life is like a rollercoaster. He goes through periods of severe depression that alternate with manic episodes. These symptoms are most similar to those found in
  18. All of the following disorders belong together, EXCEPT for which one?
  19. Research shows that depressed people tend to ________ positive feedback and ________ negative feedback.
  20. A therapist believes that his client’s depression is caused by her inability to express anger and her tendency to bottle up feelings. With respect to the goal of classification of psychological disorders, the therapist’s observations are most beneficial in
  21. When Gordon Allport said, “The same fire that melts the butter hardens the egg,” he was referring to the idea that
  22. Imagine that Carl Rogers is on a talk show handling questions about child-rearing practices. A parent calls in and asks how he should handle his son, who deliberately pushed another child off a bicycle. Carl Rogers would most likely advise the parent to
  23. Karen Horney was trained in the psychoanalytic school, but her view differed from that of orthodox Freudian theory in a several ways. For example, Horney believed that
  24. A student spends much time socializing with friends instead of studying for an important exam because he is afraid to find out whether he has what it takes to pass the exam. This student is engaging in what psychologists call
  25. In Freud’s theory of personality, the ________ corresponds roughly to the common notion of conscience.
  26. Agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience are three of the bipolar dimensions that make up the five-factor model of personality.
  27. Which of the following lists of traits could create a description of a person generated by the five-factor model of personality?
  28. A six-year-old says that she loves watching Barney, can’t stand fast food, and thinks that people who are bald are funny. According to Gordon Allport’s approach, she is describing some of her ________ traits.
  29. A person is described by others as organized, responsible, and cautious. This description pertains to the ________ factor of the five-factor model of personality.
  30. The Thematic Apperception Test was developed by ________, and over the years it has proven to be a valid measure of ________.
  31. According to Martin Seligman, people who are depressed
  32. Explanatory style theory suggests that individuals who attribute failure to external, unstable, and specific causes are most vulnerable to depression.
  33. The DSM-IV-TR contains ________ axes or dimensions, one of which classifies information based on ________.
  34. Because it occurs so frequently and because almost everyone has experienced elements of the disorder at some time in life, ________ is characterized as “the common cold of psychopathology.”
  35. A therapist believes that the cause of her client’s depression is anger directed inwardly against himself. The therapist is most likely to favor a ________ cause of depression.
  36. Delusions of persecution, delusions of grandeur, or delusional jealousy are commonly found in individuals who have the ________ type of schizophrenia.
  37. An adult patient who was repeatedly molested during childhood has no recollection of the incidents. This is most likely an example of
  38. A relative confides in you that she has recently been diagnosed as suffering from periods of depression alternating with states of mania. Your relative probably has a type of
  39. A study conducted in European populations between 1920 and 1987 shows the highest lifetime risk of developing schizophrenia in what group of people?
  40. Children with autistic disorder present severe disruption in their ability to form social bonds. They are likely to have greatly delayed and very limited development of spoken language as well as very narrow interests in the world.
  41. Your school is going to sponsor a lecture by a humanistic personality theorist. You can assume that the speaker will express the idea that humans are
  42. A psychologist is a firm supporter of the five-factor model of personality. If she conducts research with personality inventories, she is most likely to be interested in the
  43. The ________ is a dynamic mental structure that motivates, interprets, organizes, mediates, and regulates intrapersonal and interpersonal behaviors and processes.
  44. Heritability studies of personality show that
  45. A friend tells you that he knows the Thematic Apperception Test is classified as a projective test, but he can’t remember what it requires a person to do. You should tell your friend that the test taker must
  46. In Freud’s theory of personality, to defend itself against the demands of the id and the superego, the ego will institute
  47. Cognitive and social-learning theories of personality have been criticized because they
  48. In Freud’s theory of personality, the ________ corresponds roughly to the common notion of conscience.
  49. Personality theorist Hans Eysenck suggested three personality dimensions-introversion, extraversion, and neuroticism.
  50. When Gordon Allport said, “The same fire that melts the butter hardens the egg,” he was referring to the idea that
  51. According to Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, when women experience sadness, they attempt to distract themselves from depressed feelings, whereas when men experience sadness, they tend to think about the possible causes and implications of their feelings.
  52. Suppose you are sad. According to a proposal by Susan Nolen-Hoeksema, if you are a woman you are more likely to ________ in response to your sadness, and if you are a man you are more likely to ________ in response to your sadness.
  53. Which view of psychopathology places the most emphasis on the role of the culture in the diagnosis and etiology of abnormal behavior?
  54. With respect to the degree of prevalence of symptoms of the various anxiety disorders in the adult population, statistics show that
  55. A psychologist with a cognitive orientation is counseling a person who is afraid of speaking in front of others. The psychologist is most likely to focus on the
  56. Hallucinations are false or irrational beliefs that are maintained despite clear evidence to the contrary.